Process of Communication


Man is a social being and it is very difficult for an individual to be without communicating. In our day to day life we communicate through various forms for example through gestures, postures, body language and verbal or through non verbal form. To have a good form of communication it’s necessary that there is always two ways communication.

Communication is the process which helps people to share their feeling, thoughts and ideas to each other. Word communication is derived from the Latin word ‘communis’ which means common. According to Mc Quail, “communication is the process which Increases commonality and also requires elements of commonality for it occur at all. Various factors contribute to bringing about the communality the shared symbolic environment and a social relationship among those who participate in communication are the pre-requisites for communication.”  According to Ban and Hawkins, “Defined communication as the process of sending and receiving messages through channels which establish common meaning between a source and a receiver.”(The Process of Communication, S Kundra, pg 68).In both the definition we come to know that for any form of communication it’s very important to have both sender as well as receiver.

Process of Communication:

Communication Process involves various types of expressions, interpretations and responses. For a successful communication feedback is very essential because it tells how your message has been interpreted.

According to Harold D. Laswell, “communication is discerning who says what in which channel to whom and with what effect.” Here who stand for a sender, what is the message, channel is the medium, whom stands for receiver and effect is the effect that the message had on the receiver.


Sender is the source of the message or one who sends the message. Sender should always know what he is sending and also the reason behind his message. Sender conveys a meaningful message. Sender sends these messages through signs and symbol. He or she exchange ideas, information, knowledge and attitude or feelings among two people. Here information or text places a very prominent role. Among these essentials sender has got prominent role because communication process begins from sender.

Message sent by sender should always be accurate, clear, distinct appropriate authentic, credible accurate lively, humorous, expressive, clear, spontaneous and honest. Sender is also called has encoder because he or she encodes the message through words or image.


Message is the information sent by sender which he or she wants to convey to the receiver. It’s a second process of communication. Message sent by the sender is properly understood by the receiver. Message can be an idea, feeling or a piece of information. Message can be a subject matter of communication. Message can be clear image of matter.

Message gives links about the text to the receiver.  Message can be an effective communication. It impresses the receiver. For example to impress the interviewer, if you give answer which is not clear to the interviewee he may not be able to impress the interviewer and fail to get the job.

Message should always be relevant, inspiring, specific and clear. Body of the message. It gives clear identity of what sender is trying to say. When he was sending the message it gives the deepest meaning of the text. Through the text he can get the clear meaning as well as the gist of the story. When message is not proper that time reader or receiver confused himself and what he was saying and whether he was perfect about his text ?that question arises through the audieance.when he or she talks about the content he must be clear in addition to clarity . When he or she is conveying the message he must check the age group as well as the audiences and the language necessary in the message. The main idea of the message to make it clear, as it gets through if part of the message is lost. When semantic noise occurs that time message is misunderstood. That is one of the affect of the communication. For example when we are giving a speech to the audience during that time we are using the tough language, where as receiver may not be able to understand what he was saying here because we can observe the lack of preparation of the content as well as, it is not clearer to the audience. Through the text itself he must understand the communication. The words which are used here must have the meaning as well as the connection. Human spoken and written languages can be described as a system of symbols (sometimes known as lexemes) and the grammars (rules) by which the symbols are manipulated. The word “language” is also used to refer to common properties of languages. Language learning is normal in human childhood. Most human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others around them. There are thousands of human languages, and these seem to share certain properties, even though many shared properties have exceptions. It means language takes a very important part in the message.



Message is carried from the communicator to the receiver. The channel also   is called as the Madhyam   or Transmitter   to the message. Through transmitting the meaningful message to one person to another person. It may be face to face conversation. The efficiency and effectiveness of communication to a large extent depends on appropriateness of channel for message. We can call it as cycle of the process. The channel of communication are many it can be a written,  spoken, verbal, non-verbal, mass media like TV,radio,newspaper,book etc. Choosing the appropriate channel, one of the most suitable for the message as well as the reciever.Success as well as the failure of communication depends on the channel. When we observe Herald Lasswell’s definition it   mainly deals with these aspects. When we come to the question of traditional societies the growth of the people has   rapidly changed. Communication   can be changed and improved. Through banners, posters, blackboards, books   messages can be conveyed. Whereas no single channel can completely convey a message. But where as five sense also takes a very vital role in channel. When we are sending any program we are very much know about that why we are sending this programme? The main intention could be the it must reach large audieance.When we are sending any program we must be aware of what we are sending, whether it is reaches a maximum number of people; these are the main intentions of the transmitter. What kind of message you are sending is also important in the channel. When we are sending a message through the channel we must be aware of what we are sending whether they can be recapulated. When   we are sending a message that message content should be in minimum character, as well as may not be overloaded. Where as audience must have the capacity of thinking, they must digest the message themselves. When we are sending a message we must avoid ambiguity in the text. One must make individual decisions for situation. We have to take our own decisions, make our own choice as well as try to find out good channel which is more effective.


Noise is one of the barriers of the communication. Whereas decoding is not effective there is noise.  Noise is an interruption which can affect any time during the communication. Noise is a disturbance that reduces or disrupts clarity or quality of the message. It is any interference that takes place between the sender and receiver. Noise is anything that interferes, when we are sharing communication to one person to another, in other way we can call it as a sender and receiver. Noise can cause from external environment through the disturbance, such as loud sound that interferes with what you are saying. It can come from visual distraction. Whereas noise always opposes the communication. While noise involves mistreated understanding of message or a failure to receive.



Evaluative   information   derived   from such a reaction or response to study the feedback from an audience survey.  It means   response   from   audience to a particular matter   in a positive or in a   negative way. According to   Richard Nordquist: “In communication studies, the response of an audience to a message   or activity. Feedback  can convey   verbally or non verbally”.

There are   two types   of feedback.

Negative   and   positive.

Negative   feedback doesn’t imply ‘bad’   whereas positive feedback cannot be termed as ‘good’.  Negative feedback implies  that  you  should  do  less of   what  you are  doing or change  to  something  else.

Positive   feedback   encourages you to work hard.  It should not exceed   the limit. Even public speaking has highs and lows of feedback.  It  doesn’t  allow   for a  constant   exchange  of information   between  listener   and  speaker   which happens    in a conversation,  but audience  response  can be  identified  through  facial  expressions,  gestures etc.

Feedback  refers   to  the  response  a sender  gets   from the  receiver ,  it has primary  importance  in   communication except  in the  field of media.


It  is the  interpretation  of the   message   by  the  receiver   .  Actually   ,  the   receiver  looks  for  the meaning  in the message   ,   which  is  common  to    both  the    receiver  as well as  sender  .   The  receiver   begins  to interpret   the symbols   sent  by the sender  ,   translating the message    in order to   give    clear  image  of the   symbols.  Communication  can  be successful   only   when the  receiver    correctly  interprets    the  sender’s   message  .


 To  use  a word  ,  or a phrase  in the   construction  appropriate   to it  in  that language .To    convert   a message   to  plain   text    in to  code  .   Processing  information   in  to  memory  is called   encoding.  When  a sender  attempts   to    replicate  his  or her  internal  thoughts   or feelings  in  to   some  kind  of  external  message   medium   for  the sake of transmitting    those  thoughts   or  feelings   to  another   person   .  This process of changing  ideas    in  to  symbols    and    then  in to  a  message   is  called   encoding . When    we are encoding    we   must   be aware  about  the target  audience  . First   step ,   the sender   faces    the encoding  process  in     order  to  convey  the   meaning .

For example in a meeting room boss will be the sender, announcement done about new product will be the message, speech will be the medium of communication, employees will be the receiver and response given by them will be the response.



1. Gaur Sanjay. (2006).Dimensions of mass media and communication, Jaipur.(Page No 1to7)

2. Anand Kumar Vijay. (2007). History of Mass Communication, New Delhi. Murari Lal and Sons. (Page No 1to6)

3. Aggarwal Shalini. (2009). Essential Communication Skills, New Delhi. Ane Books Pvt. Ltd. (Page No 1to9)

4. Kundra S. (2005). The Process of Communication, New Delhi. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. (Page No 1to11, 68to76)

5. Kumar J. Keval. (1994). Mass Communication in India, Mumbai. Jaico Publishing House. (Page No 1to5)

6. Pandy K.S. Encycolopaedia of Mass Media and Communication Hand Book of Journalism, V. S. Gupta Publication.

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